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ASSIGNMENT: Who Is A Person In America?

1864 Sand Creek Massacre
Jack B.
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external image Chiving1.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chiving1.jpg
external image 295px-Portrait_of_Black_Kettle_or_Moke-Tao-To%3F_and_Delegation_Of_Cheyenne_and_Arapaho_Chiefs_28_SEP_1864.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_of_Black_Kettle_or_Moke-Tao-To%3F_and_Delegation_Of_Cheyenne_and_Arapaho_Chiefs_28_SEP_1864.jpg
U.S. Army Colonel John M. Chivington's portrait
The Leaders of the Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho tribes in Denver, Colorado
on September 28, 1864. Black Kettle is the 2nd from the left on the bottom row.
TASK I:
Write a journal/newspaper style article in which you take a neutral stance (as a reporter) and give the facts about the actual event. What led up to the event? What happened during the actual event? Did it have an “end” or is it unresolved? You are to write about this event when it happened, you are assuming the role of a reporter in 1850, 1920, etc., not someone looking back from 2011. You need to cite your sources, and they must include information only available during that time period. At least one source must be primary and/or an eyewitness account. Important - This work will be submitted to TurnItIn.com. We will provide you information about using this helpful resource

Massacre of our neighbors, the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians

November 29, 1864

Jack Bebinger



Denver- Yesterday the 3rd Colorado Volunteers, lead by Colonel John M. Chivington, murdered between 400 and 600 of our neighboring Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians in what will forever be known as the Sand Creek Massacre. While the death toll on both sides is still unknown (we can only make guesses at what they will be) it is obvious what these men have done is horrible and yet when they returned from their barbarous onslaught they were viewed as heroes’. Col. Chivington said that “the Indians were surprised” by the attack and “were soon fighting desperately”, how could this have been reporting as a victory over a massacre when the enemy was so surprised they didn’t know what was happening till they were killed? And why do the citizens think their soldiers are heroes?, they are murderers not heroes and should be viewed as such.


The 3rd Colorado Volunteers was originally known as the “bloodless third” because of the three Colorado Volunteers regiments the third was the only one that hadn’t seen combat yet, and were eager for combat. When the regiment returned home after the sand creek massacre they were given the nickname the “bloody third” because of the atrocities they committed during the massacre. After the “battle” had ended, “the soldiers went back to the dead and wounded and scalped them all”, this was the kindest thing they did to all the bodies, “they cut off women’s breasts and removed their genitalia. The children had their skulls smashed in. These barbarians then strung these body parts around Denver when they got back.” The government has condemned the actions of Col. Chivington and his men, but what has been done is done and can’t be reversed no matter how barbaric it is.


From the Cheyenne and Arapaho side this was one of the worst attacks on their people in the history of their encounters with the whites. They were just moving because there reservation had, once again, been made even smaller, they originally had the states of Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas and were garentide from the government that this would always be their land. But the government lies and they Cheyenne and Arapaho were now living at sand creek, there new reservation was only a part of Colorado now. Since they couldn’t farm on this new land, they were forced to hunt their neighbors (white settlers) cattle for sustenance and that’s what lead to the Massacre. George Bent is a survivor of the massacre and had this to say “a terrible sight: men, women, and children lying thickly scattered on the sand, some dead and the rest too badly wounded to move.” Luckily George fall into a hole and survived the massacre with only a wounded hip. The men that have massacred these Indians, our neighbors and friends, should be sent to jail and punished for the atrocities they have executed.

Task 1: Mastery Rubric
A quality news article will:
•open with an attention-grabbing headline
•identify the author's name and the date of the publication (in the past)
•develop the 5 W's in three power paragraphs
•paragraph 1: contain an interesting lead
•paragraph 2: correctly cite a secondary source (an indirect quote)
•paragraph 3: correctly cite a primary source (eyewitness account)
•maintain appropriate journalistic voice
•read like an article written in the same time period as the event occurred
•be free of mechanics and Works Cited errors

TASK II
What is the Argument?
There was no need for the military to go on a campaign to murder this village of Cheyenne and Arapaho indians
PROMPT 1: Why did the majority of Americans not recognize the rights of members of this group?
The majority of Americans didn’t recognize the rights of the Native Americans because they were different, they had a different color skin and they spoke a different language. The Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians were just trying to find food for their village and they found the settlers cattle. It was the settlers own fault that the Indians started to kill their cattle, they are the ones who moved in onto the Indians land and forced the government to change the treaty with the Indians and move the Indian village to a place where crops couldn’t be grown and cattle couldn’t live because there wasn’t a river or field for the cattle to graze on. Since the Indians were killing cattle news papers like the Denver newspaper started advocating the “Extermination of the red devils” and suggesting to readers to “takes a few months off and dedicate that time to wiping out the Indians.” In all these aggressive publishing’s towards the Indians not one person thought about seeing why the Indians were doing these things, they were doing these things because they had no choice. It was the settlers fault they were moved onto a tiny reservation that couldn’t support an entire village, it was the settlers fault the Indians started to kill cattle, but the settlers still went out and murdered these Indians that were just trying to stay alive.
PROMPT 2: How did advocates for the minority group shed light on this injustice?
The main advocates for the massacre of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians were news reporters, government officials, and everyday people from the east coast. People in the west viewed the returning soldiers as heroes instead of villains but people in the east viewed the massacre for what it really was and immediately condemned all the persons involved in the event. One of the Colorado Senators, Ben Campbell, even said “one of the most disgraceful moments in American History.” Almost all of the people in Colorado believed that the soldiers were heroes, but why would a few turn around and say that it was a disgraceful days? They turned because they realized that what these men had done was extremely wrong and they should be viewed as villains and criminals. On the Native American side today, they view the Sand Creek Massacre as one of the most vicious attacks in history.


TASK III:
Paragraph 1: Analyze the impact of the literary or artistic work for the minority group and/or American society as a whole.

The Last Warrior
High on bleak, stony rag,
Unmoving, he sits astride
His ragged coated pony.
Only telltale frozen breaths,
Separate them from
The still, winter black boles
Of ancient leafless trees.
The pony, blown and lame,
Stands with lowered head,
Ears flattened to the sound
Of a distant wolf pack.
The man on his back,
All weapons lost,
Ignores the trickling blood
From savage wounds,
Mingling his war paint.
Eyes burning fiercely
He strains to find
The sign he seeks:
Behind, the sound of enemy
Draws ever closer.
At last, faith rewarded,
He sees far below
In the deep valley,
Arriving at the edge
Of the fast flowing river,
The great she bear
With two gamboling cubs:
To fish the racing salmon,
Drawn relentlessly toward
Their age-old spawning ground.
Silently, the wounded brave
Offers his final prayer
To the eternal clan bear;
Totem and guardian
Of his battle slain tribe.
The enemy, exultant,
Are almost upon him,
Yet he looks not behind:
He sees only the Great Spirit,
Surrounding him kindly
In loving, firm embrace.
While the enemy closes in,
He straightens himself;
His voice rings loud and clear,
Echoing across the land
To the distant cloudless sky.
One last defiant war cry
As he spurs on his pony,
And leaps...
Into the world of his ancestors.

W.J. Bruce


This poem was inspired by the tragedy that happened at the Sand Creek Massacre, and it’s in the Native American Perspective. The poem is talking about a warrior, who is the last one alive in his tribe or group who has escaped the battle with his life but is wounded and the enemy is chasing after him. This is what many Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians were faced with when running away from Sand Creek so that they didn’t get killed but many were wounded, like George Bent who was shot in the leg and the only reason he survived was he fell into a hole and the American soldiers didn’t find him. The last four lines of the poem are the most emotional lines because it’s talking about how the Indian is crying out one last time and leaping into death to join his ancestors. The impact of the Sand Creek Massacre was relatively big on the Native Americans, many people wrote poetry. One man even wrote a whole book of poetry all on the Sand Creek Massacre and how Americans are feeling about what they did over 150 years ago.

Paragraph 2: CLOSING-- How did the event impact the debate on the argument?
The Sand Creek Massacre impacted the debate of who is a person in the United States because leading up to the massacre people spread stereo types that Native Americans were “savages” who went around scalping settlers and killing everyone. Since so many news articles were published about people being scalped and killed (there were certain cases were it had happened and there were certain tribes of Indians like the Comanche that were very violent towards the settlers). Then there were people like John M. Chivington who believed that “the Cheyennes will have to be roundly whipped – or completely wiped out”, people like this also spread stereo types that Native Americans were bad people and needed to be exterminated. The long term effects of all these stereo types is that we still have Native Americans living on reservations and they still haven’t been integrated into our society. The Sand Creek Massacre worsened the conflict between Native Americans and the United States because other native groups, especially the Cheyenne and Arapaho, were angered by this event and struck out against the US in raids and attacks. This event was one of the worst massacres of Native Americans to its time and is still considered one today.

TASK III: Artistic Expression Element Rubric
An outstanding product will.
•showcase a work that expresses a profound idea about your event and the argument surrounding it Great poem to use here
•be the best example available, not simply the first one you find
•demonstrate your ability to interpret the meaning of the literary or artistic piece
•use the extended power paragraph format as a means to express your understanding of the event, argument, and how art literature and art
can reveal emotions and ideas A power paragraph should have one, clear idea supported with factual evidence
•reference sources accurately Be sure to use an MLA citation and parenthetial citations
•mechanics are clean and effective
Is George Bent a Native American?

Rubric for the Time Line Page
An outstanding time line entry includes the following:
• Opens by identifying you, the author, and your event with a banner headline (see an example of a banner on the top of this page).
Under the banner, in the table place two graphics or photos that illustrates an important aspect of the event.
• Thoughtful responses to each prompt are supported by credible sources representing diverse perspectives on the event.
• Each response should be posted in order (follow template instructions), contain few mechanic errors and follow the power paragraph format.
• The credibility of each cited source is established and internal citations accurately match the Works Cited.• TASK I and TASK II each introduce and cite two new sources; TASK III cites one new source.• The Works Cited lists 5 credible sources from the LC databases.